The renting of the enslaved

Col. John Tilghman (b. 1785 – d. 1866)
MSA SC 5496-37789
Property Owner, Queen Anne’s County, Maryland

Biography:

John Tilghman was born on March 8, 1785 to Judge James Tilghman and his wife Elizabeth Johns. He married Ann Tilghman, with whom he had three children: Matthew Ward (b. circa 1817), James, and Lloyd (b. circa 1823).1 His second wife, Anna Catherine Tilghman, was a cousin of his deceased first wife. Anna Catherine bore him another three children: John Henry, Mary Elizabeth, and Ann Catherine.2

In 1811, he bought over 450 acres of land from Peregrine Tilghman in Queen Anne’s County, including parts of the tracts called Cheshire and Tilghman’s Recovery. Tilghman lived in or near Poplar Grove, north of Corsica Creek. He owned property on the south side of the creek and later appeared on J.G. Stong’s 1866 map of Queen Anne’s County.3

The Poplar Grove Collection of papers includes many of John Tilghman’s papers, including receipts and letters. Several 1838 letters from the attorney and judge Ezekial Forman Chambers suggest that Tilghman not only conducted business with Chambers, but had also formed a friendship.4 Numerous other business correspondances in the collection reflect Tilghman’s experience as a slave holder. Series 13 contains lists of slaves’ names, receipts for related purchases, and sales of individuals within the region.

However, the most fascinating documents recount Tilghman’s ambitious experiment with renting slaves to plantations in Louisiana and Mississippi. Beginning as early as 1830, he began to send enslaved blacks from the Eastern Shore through his southern agent, Spencer M. Grayson, a resident of Natchez, MS.5 Grayson had extreme difficulty negotiating costs and provisions with the local plantation owners, Samuel Clement being the one most commonly referred to. Tilghman receives letters from both men, where they air their respective grievances about the other man, including Grayson labeling his rival ” a scoundrel”.6 For his part, Clement claimed that ” Jerry came to my plantation begging me to keep him … for he could not nor want not stay with Mr Grayson.”7 This was undoubtedly a stressful arrangement for John Tilghman, who could do little to settle these local squabbles from his Maryland residence. The last piece of correspondance with Grayson came in 1835, after which Tilghman only rented slaves to planters in adjacent communities.

Excerpts from correspondence between Spencer Grayson aand John Tilghman

February 7, 1833

Capt. Clement is a resident of the State of Louisiana, but has a plantation in this state, Mississippi also, one in Louisiana. Since the passage of the laws in Louisiana in inhibiting the introduction of slaves into that State. I have thought it hazardous to your interests to hire the negroes to Clement, when he ??? the intention of ??? them in Louisiana. He never had my permission at any time to take the slaves into Louisiana, but ??? to the legislation of Louisiana on the subject of slavery, I did not forbid them being taken out of this state, because then I apprehended no danger. Soon after the law prohibiting the further introduction of Negroes into Louisiana had passed, one year hire of the slaves to Clement ??? The negroes were then in Louisiana & upon the application of Clement to hire them again, I thought the law did not apply to negroes in the State at the time the law passed.  In this I was correct to a certain extent.  But upon a more full examination of the law, I find that no slaves but those actually owned by citizens of Louisiana and, there at the time the law passed are exempt from its operation.  More than one month previous to the expiration of the hire of the negroes for the last year [paper torn]I informed Capt Clement of my opinion[paper torn] & ??? him as soon as the time of hireshould end, to deliver the negroes to me.  This he has refused to do and now holds them on the other side of the river in Louisiana against my express order.  Capt Clement has informed me that he has written to you on the subject and expects daily an answer giving him permission to retain the slaves.  That you ??? be aware of the reasons why I have refused to hire the negroes to Clement, I have made the above statement to you.  The conduct of Clement I deem extremely reprehensible and disho[illegible] presuming from the character of the man & knowing him to be capable of any thing, that he may have communicated by letter to you some false and improper statements I beg that you will enclose to me a copy of any letter that he may have written to you on this subject.  His conduct in regard to this transaction is a matter of notoriety here & if any further information is ??? can be easily had.  I intend to take ?considerate? steps to force the delivery to me of the slaves, and, for the future will see that no such man as Clement gets the possession again.  Your early reply to [paper torn is respectfully requested

Respectfully

Sm Grayson

To Col John Tilghman Chestertown Md

 

I believe that the Captain Clement mention in the letter is Captain Samuel Clement of Mississippi and Louisiana.

http://sankofagen.pbworks.com/w/page/14230753/Ravenswood%20Plantation#Overview

 

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Corrine Cora Flamer

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When Cora Flamer was born on May 12, 1892, her father, James, was 45, and her mother, Sarah Sparks, was 37. 1900, Cora and her family resided in Queenstown, Queen Anne’s Maryland. Her father James was a farm laborer and her mother Sarah had 15 children and 9 was living at the time. Cora married William Oliver Acree around 1908. 1910 Cora and her family lived in Ridgely Maryland. She had three daughters with William Oliver Acree between 1909 and 1913. Her daughters Mildred I Acree, Mary Grace Acree and Olive Virginia Acree. 1920 Cora and her family lived in Denton Maryland. 1930 Cora and family continue to live in Denton. They own their house, at a value of 500 dollars. Oliver is a barber and Cora is cook for a private home.  February 11 1940 William Oliver Acree had died. Cora was a widow living in Denton by herself. Before 1950 Cora had married Anderson Harry Stanford. November 1951, Cora Stanford said that Norman North, posed as insurance agent, collected $6 from her last July and she never heard from him again. He was arrested. Cora died on July 19, 1972, in Denton, Maryland, at the age of 80, and was buried in Spring Grove Cemetery Denton Caroline County Maryland. Lifelong member of Metropolitan United Methodist Church. Senior Choir and head waitress in the Church dining room for many years.

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Morgan Henry Acree

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Curtis Lee Acree Jr.

This gallery contains 2 photos.

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The Ten Percent:Free People of Color

Last night I was listening to Black ProGen Live, a group of professional genealogists who research and document African-American families, they have round tables setting (Webinar presentations) on YouTube. Black ProGen Live stated “That in 1860, there were more than 4 million enslaved people of African descent living in the United States. At the same time, there were nearly 400,000 free people of color (FPOC) living in the U.S.”   I was surprised about the 10 percent, since majority of my relatives on the Eastern Shore were free in 1860. So I went to research how many free people of color were counted in Maryland and then broken down to Caroline, Queen Anne, Dorchester and Talbot counties.

Maryland : 83,942 free people of color

Caroline County: 2,786   Queen Anne: 3,372  Dorchester:4,684  Talbot:2,964

The county with the majority of FPOC was Baltimore with a total of 29,911 FPOC

So Maryland had almost 1/4 of the 10 percent of FPOC living in United States. So here is  a list of my head of household relatives that were free people of color in the Eastern Shore Maryland.

Caroline County:

Matthew Johns and his wife Emily Ann Homer

Henrietta Lockerman

John and Sarah Lockerman

Benedict Wyatt and his wife Clementine Sarah Coker

Jame Flamer and his wife Lurette

Joseph Flamer and his wife Loretta

John Sparks and his wife Mary

Robert Matthews, he lived most of his life  in Caroline county, but in the 1860, he was working Anne  Arundel.

Wilson and Elizabeth Downes

Medford Pritchett and Mary Adeline Clark

Nathan Clark and his wife Mary Cooper

Dorchester County:

William Cephas

Those mention are head of lineages, this does not include children or siblings that are also FPOC

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The ongoing search of Major Acree’s ancestors.

It has been awhile since my last post, but I am still searching for my 4th great-grandfather Major Acree’s ancestors. Since the last post, I found a 3rd cousin Acree on 23andme  DNA. He is a male from a lineage of Acree men.  We share Robert Acree as our 2nd great grandfather.  His paternal haplogroup is E1b1b1a4, which is found in Morroco and Libya. The haplogroup did not confirm the father to son lineage to William Acree (c1710-c1767) of Hanover Co., Virginia. This leads me to believe that the Acree name was the surname of  Major’s mother and not the actual surname of Major’s father. So why do I still think I am a descendant of William Acree (c1710-c1767) of Hanover Co., Virginia. Due to DNA testing, my Major Acree’s descendants are sharing DNA with several descendants of his sons John, Abraham, and William Acree 1 in the chart below.

The first five men are presumed sons of William Acree (c1710-c1767) of Hanover Co., Virginia.

John Acree Joshua Acree Abraham Acree Isaac Acree William Acree 1 William Acree 2 Jacob Acra
will will Bible record will will Pension record Church record
Sons: Sons: Sons: Sons: Sons: Sons: Sons:
Edward* William* John* Isaac Jr. William Jr. John* John
John Jr.* Joshua Jr. James* Joshua* Shearin William Jr.* William
William* David* William Abraham John* Ephraim* Thomas*
Henly* Carter Ambrose* Peter
Leonard John* Joel
Amos

Courtesy  Charles Acree.  A Family Tree  Acree/Sachse/Hoover/Ogden/ Skipworth/Nelson/TenEyck/Williamson & Associated Families

There are two scenarios, Major’s mother might have been one of the men above daughter of European descent or his mulatto daughter. Mulatto being that her mother was of Native American/ African descent/European combination.  Major was listed as multiple race on his marriage license. Major and his family lived as Native American.

Thanks to my cousins Oscar “Bunky” Chapman Jr and his daughter Deybra Chapman, I  received a picture of my great-grandfather William Oliver Acree.

                             Acree real WilliamOliverdea60da7-108e-43c0-87ed-06c453a57805

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RESERVATION INDIANS AND THEIR “FRINGE”

Thomas Acree

Pamunkey Blogger

(all possible names listed: scattergun method)

(“Res.” in census notes =Pamunkey Reservation, then formally recognized by state.)

Census 1830, 1840, “free coloured” unless otherwise noted. Census 1850, 1860, “mulatto” unless otherwise noted.Census 1870, “Indian” unless otherwise noted. Census 1880, Indians not listed, with few exceptions.Census 1890, burned in Washington. Census 1900, 1910, “Indian” section (not used here, except for less common names.)

ANNE: Pamunkey leader; first appears by petition of Aug. 1706 (Palmer 1875, I: 105). Also petitioned in 1708 (Palmer, 1875, I: 127-128) and 1715 (Palmer1875, I: 184-185. She may also be the unnamed queen in other documents between 1705 and 1723.

ACREY, ELIZA (b. 1834): K. Wm. woman, shown on 1870 census as living out in County, aged 36 (and “white” with daughter Lucy E. (7) and (boarder?) Bertie Hill (17, “black”); shown in 1880 census as living out in County,aged 51 (and “white”), with daughter Susan and…

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Prince Hall Masons

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Prince Hall Masons of Maryland trace their history to Massachusetts and Prince Hall, who is believed to been born the year of 1735 and died on December 4, 1807. I am assuming my gggrandfather German Downes belong to the Seventh Masonic District which consist of Caroline, Dorchester, Kent, Queen Annes’, and Talbot Counties. I had read an article in the newspaper that mention that members of the order which German Downes belonged to assisted in preparing his grave after someone had vandalize it several years after his death.

German’s grandson Wilson Downes was Past Worthy Patron of Olive Branch Lodge No. 93 in  Caroline County Maryland. German’s great-grandson had moved to Philadelphia and joined the Pennsylvania’s Prince Hall Masons.

                             

Uncle reginald

Reginald Downes

My uncle Reginald joined and was raised to a Master Mason in Light of Elmwood Lodge #45 in 1990. He went to Temple Lodge in 1994 and was appointed Senior Deacon and later became Worship Master of Temple Lodge #22. He served as Worshipful Master several times.He served as High Priest of King Solomon Chapter #1 Holy Royal Arch, Deputy Master, Hiram King of Tyre of Charles E. Gordon Consistory #65. He received his 33rd degree from Charles E. Consistory #65. He was Illustrious Potentate of Minaret temple #174. He received several outstanding achievement awards that included, Noble of the Year Award, Sublime Prince of the Year, Holy Arch Companion of the Year and many more to numerous to mention.

 

 

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Maryland’s Eastern Shore

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Close relations of the slaves and indentured servants

Close relations of the slaves and indentured servants

Run away in April last from Richard Tilghman of Queen Anne’s County in Maryland a Mulatto slave, Named Richard Mol- son, of Middle stature, about forty years old, and has had the Small Pox, HE IS IN COMPANY WITH A WHITE WOMAN NAMED MARY, WHO IS SUPPOSED NOW GOES FOR HIS WIFE; AND A WHITE MAN NAMED GARRETT CHOISE, AND JANE HIS WIFE, which said White People are servants to some Neighbors of the said Richard Tilghman. The said fuga- tives are Supposed to be gone to Carolinas or some other of his Majestys Plantations in America. Whoever shall apprehend the said Fugatives and cause them to be committed into safe custody, and give Notice thereof to their Owners shall be well rewarded. The white man has one of his fore fingers disabled. Whoever shall carry them to the Sheriff of Philadelphia shall have Twenty Pounds current money paid him or them or shall convey the Molatta to the said sheriff shall have Ten Pounds, or whoever shall convey the Molatta to the said Richard Tilghhan shall have Fifteen Pounds reward. — The American Weekly Mercury (Philadelphia) , Aug. 11, Aug. 25 and Sept. 1, 1720.

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