15 January 2010: A Friend Of Friends: Lessons From The Underground Railroad

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New Kids On The Blog AAGSAR

To Our Ancestors,

… we stand before you now, your living legacy, the flesh and blood of our collective dreaming, and we realize with a knowing deeper than the flow of human blood in human veins that we are part of something better, truer, deeper.

We speak your names.
We speak your names.

“We Speak Your Names” Pearl Cleage, pg. 15

AAGSAR: You Got Roots? – New Kids On The Blog

We Speak Your Names” Pearl Cleage, Contributing Guest Blogger Kristin Cleage of Finding Eliza

Achilles Acree

Subject: Achilles Acree

Born:  In Virginia, United States

Question: Are there two Achilles Acree in Caroline County?

1809 Caroline County Virginia                                                                                                      Name: Archilles Acre  Gender: Male

Spouse Name: Susanna Lavorn

Spouse Gender : Female

Marriage Date: 12 Dec 1809 County: Caroline State: Virginia

                                                                         

1810 King and Queen County Virginia

1810UnitedStatesFederalCensusForAchillesAcre

 

Name: Achilles Acree
Home in 1810 (City, County, State): King and Queen, Virginia
Free White Persons – Males – 26 thru 44 : 1
Free White Persons – Females – 16 thru 25: 1
Number of Household Members Over 25: 1
Number of Household Members: 2

 

 

 

1814 Achillis Acree: of Caroline County served under Capt. Wm. H. Hutcherson of King and Queen County from about August 6 to September 18, 1814, and for which service he received 40 acres. On April 25, 1854, he made oath that he was 75 years old.

1817, List of Ambrose Jones, Caroline County                                                                                             Acre, Killes 1 tithe 1 horse free Mulatto

1818, Caroline County list of Ambrose Jones                                                                                                Acre, Killes 1 tithe 1 horse

1819, List of Ambrose Jones                                                                                                                             Acre, Achilles 1 tithe 1 horse

1820 List of Ambrose Jones                                                                                                                             Acree, Achilles 1 tithe 1 horse         Acree, Majer 1 tithe

1820 census Caroline County Virginia

1820UnitedStatesFederalCensusForMajorAcree (1)

 

Name: Achilles Acree
Home in 1820 (City, County, State): Caroline, Virginia
Enumeration Date: August 7, 1820
Free White Persons – Males – Under 10: 3
Free White Persons – Males – 26 thru 44: 1
Free White Persons – Females – Under 10: 1
Free White Persons – Females – 16 thru 25: 1
Free White Persons – Under 16: 4
Free White Persons – Over 25: 1
Total Free White Persons: 6
Total All Persons – White, Slaves, Colored, Other: 6

This Achilles Acree who is listed white, lives near Major Acree. Which also the mulatto Achilles Acree live near Major Acree. There is never two Achilles listed at the same time. It appears the Federal census taker noted that Achilles Acree was a white man. The local town clerk noted each year on the register that Achilles Acree as a free Mulatto.

1830 Federal Census Caroline County Virginia 

Name: Achilles Acre
Home in 1830 (City, County, State): Caroline, Virginia
Free White Persons – Males – 10 thru 14: 1
Free White Persons – Males – 15 thru 19: 2
Free White Persons – Males – 40 thru 49: 1
Free White Persons – Females – 10 thru 14: 1
Free White Persons – Females – 40 thru 49: 1
Slaves – Males – Under 10: 1
Slaves – Females – Under 10: 1
Slaves – Females – 24 thru 35: 1
Free White Persons – Under 20: 4
Free White Persons – 20 thru 49: 2
Total Free White Persons: 6
Total Slaves: 3
Total – All Persons (Free White, Slaves, Free Colored): 9

Notation:    Index of Marriage Register(1787-1853) Reel#33VSA                                                                        Earliest is 1809, Archilles Acre; may be free black family. Posted by John Stevens                      January 01, 2002 Re: Acree, John 1760-1780 Caroline Co. VA

So another reseacher in 2002 also made the assumption that Achilles Acree had black ancestry.

Achilles Acree remained in Caroline County Virginia, his last two decades he lived as a pauper.

 

Major ACREE CASE 1780-1840

 

detective2

Subject: Major Acree

Born: 1780 in Virginia, United States

Timeline

 1785. Chapter LXXVIII. Every person of whose grandfathers or grandmothers anyone is or shall have been a Negro, although all his other progenitors, except that descending from the Negro shall have been white persons, shall be deemed a mulatto, and so every person who shall have one-                                                                        fourth or more Negro blood shall in like manner be                                                                      deemed a mulatto. This act is to be in force from                                                                           January 1, 1787.

1793 Free Negroes or mulattoes shall be registered and numbered in a book to be kept by the town clerk, which shall specify age, name, color, status and by whom, and in what court emancipated. Annually the Negro shall be delivered a copy for twenty-five cents.

  1813, List of William Sale, Jr., at end of list, A List of Free Negroes & Mulattoes, tithes (includes females over 16), slaves, horses, two wheel carriages

                   Major Acree 1 tithe  Some of his neighbors:  Wm Fortune 4 tithes, Mordecai Bird 1 tithe,  Daniel Johnston 2 tithes 2 horses,Banjamin Reaves 2 tithes,George Bird 1 tithe,Roy Bird 1 tithe,Nancy Bird 1 tithe,Polly Bird 1 tithe, Maga Morton 1 tithe,Armistead Fortune 3 tithes 1 horse,Jane Fortune 1 tithe 1 horse,Betty Fortune 1 tithe, Roy Grymes 1 tithe 2 horses,     Daniel Carter 5 tithes 1 horse,Christopher Hailstock 1 tithe 1 horse, Samuel Grymes 2 tithes 1 horse, Celie the elder 1 tithe,  Celie the younger, Titus Flemming 3 tithes, Jane Grymes 1 tithe 2 slaves, Robert Grymes 1 tithe.

1814  Major Acree   Neighbors: Daniel Carter,William Carter, Barttlett McKnuckles, Joseph                            Welch ,Armistead Fortune,Even Grymes, Robert Jackson, Jane Grymes,  

1816, Caroline County, District of Ambrose Jones                                                                                               Major Acree, Neighbors: Fortune, Lucey 2 slaves over 16, 2 horses,                                                 Grymes, Jane 2 slaves over 16, 1 horse, Jack Munroes free 1 horse                                                      Morton,Matthew Jr. 2 horses,Tombs, William 1 tithe, 1 horse Tombs, Wyatt                                         Welch, Lang 1 slave over 16

July 1816 Major Acree was listed in sales of the estate of Benjamin Vawer dec’d.

Will Book 19, page 216 Caroline Co., VA. At a court of Monthly session held for Caroline County at the Courthouse of Monday the 8 day of July 1816, this report was returned and is ordered to be Recorded, Test. John L. Pendleton C. C. An Account of sales of the estate of Benjamin Vawer dec’d. as follows: (Note: all funds are shown as dollars and cents) Mrs. Beazley: one ax .50, one bed bedstead and cord 10.00, 1 table 1.80, ½ dozen chairs 2.05 total $14.35 Capt. Garnett: 1 dutch over 2.10, Capt. Daniel: 1 pair of pistole molds .10 Mrs. Welch Senr.: One Horse $10.00 George Chapman: Lot of old books .50, 1 choice Mobley stand 2.50 2 choice Mobiley stand 3.05 total $6.05 Mrs. Vauter: 1 testament .12, 3 pewter plates .75, 1 bed and furniture 6.05, 1 pale .12 1/2, 1 piggin .06 total $7.11 J_s Vaughn: 1 book 1.05, 1 bible .06, 2 pewter basons 1.81, 1 hand saw $1.60 total $4.52 Thos. Reynolds: one table 1.00, 1 press 9.25 Total $10.25 MAJOR ACREE: One pewter dish 1.25, one chest 1.05, one tub .83 Total $3.13 John M. Gray: One gun $10.05 Jas. Clift: To hire of Charles $12.00 Colo. Todd: 1 foot adze .85, 1 auger. 85, 1 pot & hooks 1.36, 1 steer 5.07, pistols & holsters 25.00, 2 bottles 1.35, 1still 27.80, 1 funnel .59, 1 gun 3.05 1 pi55 saw 1.95 Total $69.85 Chas. Beazley: 1 drawing knife .27, 1 tble .25, 1 cask .50, 2 cask .12, 3 rd choice of Mobley stands .70 Total $1.84 Jno. P. Walden: 1 candlestick .05, 2 jugs,.35 Total .40 Will Book 19 page 217 Caroline Co., VA. The estate of Benjamin Vauter decd in account with John Scott committee. To amount of bonds returned $155.13 To comm.. on the amt. Of sales 7.79 To this sum for crying property 2.00 To tax account for 1815 3.12 By Amount of sales $155.63 Due to Reuben Tankersley D. S. For John Scott $168.04 Caroline Co., to wit: Pursuant to an order of said county court we have this day examed John Scott shff. Of the said county amount of his admr. On the estate of Benjamin Vauter decd and find a balance due said Shff. Of twelve dollars and forty cents. Given under our hands 8 July 1816. Signed Wilson Allen, Armistead Hoomes, Lewis Madison. At a court of monthly session held for Caroline county at the courthouse 8 July 1816 Teste John Pendleton http://www.vawterfamily.org/Georgine/Bartholomew%20100-211.pdf

1817, List of Ambrose Jones, Caroline County                                                                                                    Major Acre, Neighbors: Acre, Killes 1 tithe 1 horse free Mulatto,Bunday, John 1                              tithe free Mulatto, Byrd, George 1 tithe free Mulatto, Byrd, Roy 1 tithe do                                           Chambers, Joseph 1 tithe free Mulatto at B. Green,Carter, William 1 tithe 1                                       horse, free Mulatto,Fortune, George 1 tithe,Grymes, Jane 2 slaves over 16, 3                                      horses  Grymes, Samuel 1 tithe 1 horseJohnson, Dudley 1 tithe free                                                    Mulatto Jones, George 1 tithe 1 horse free Mulatto.

1818, January 23 Carolune County

Major married Nancy Carter. Nancy’s mother Rachael was listed as multiple races.

1819 List of Ambrose Jones

Majer Acre, Neighbors: Acre, Achilles 1 tithe 1 horse, Byrd, Lawrence 1 tithe free                             Mulatto near Wm Rouse, Chambers, Joseph 1 tithe Mulatto at B. Green                                             Fortune, George 1 tithe, 1 horse,Fortune, Armstead, Jr. 1 tithe Free Mulatto                                       Fortune, Lucey 1 tithe 1 slave over 16,Grymes, Jane 2 slaves over 16, 3 horses                                     Grymes, Roy 1 tithe 1 horse, Grymes, Turner 1 tithe. Grymes, Fielding 1 tithe                                        Jones, George 1 tithe 1 horse, near Baylors Mill,Jones, Bennett 1 tithe, 1 horse                                    Johnson, William 1 tithe Mulatto Freeman,Johnson, Dudley 1 tithe 1 horse, free                                  Mulatto

1820 Caroline County Virginia  M

1820UnitedStatesFederalCensusForMajorAcree (1)

Major Acree is listed as free colored. Achilles Acree is now listed as a free white male.

During the 19th century, the legislature had defined that a person with one-eighth or less African ancestry could be considered white. During the years of slavery in effect, white citizens of Virginia were less concerned with non-European ancestry than people had become by the early 20th century, more than 50 years after Emancipation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racial_Integrity_Act_of_1924

1830 Caroline County, Virginia

1830UnitedStatesFederalCensusForMajorAcre

Name: Major Acre
Home in 1830 (City, County, State): Caroline, Virginia
Free Colored Persons – Males – Under 10: 2
Free Colored Persons – Males – 36 thru 54: 1
Free Colored Persons – Females – Under 10: 1
Free Colored Persons – Females – 10 thru 23: 2
Free Colored Persons – Females – 36 thru 54: 1  Total Free Colored Persons: 7
Total – All Persons (Free White, Slaves, Free Colored): 7

Major and Nancy had 2 sons and 3 daughters living with them

1834 Caroline Count Virginia                                                                                                                          Major and Nancy’s son Thomas Acree born 1807 married Sarah C, Majors.                                Her father parents Franklin and Nancy Majors.

Notation: ACREE, THOMAS (b. 1827): K. Wm. man, son of Major and Nancy Acree,                                             husband of Sarah C. Major (m. as “Indians” 4/24/1854– old Reg.), dau. of                                           Franklin and Nancy.                                                                                                                             This was listed in the Reservation Indians and their Fringe blog Posted by                                         Strong  Bull on August 20, 2011 in Pamunkey.

Pamunkey Indian Reservation is a Native American Reservation in King William, Virginia, United States. The reservation lies along the  Pamunkey River in King William County, Virginia on the Middle Peninsula.

Major

It is possible that Franklin Major was related to the family in this picture Lee Major, his wife Sarah Langston Major (a Pamunkey), and their sons: Opitchipan Major (standing), Powhatan Major (seated) and Elston Opechancanough Major, Mattaponi Indians ca. 1900 on the Mattapony River in King William County.

Updated 8/12/2016 Franklin Major’s son is Elston Major the father of Lee Major. So Lee Major’s aunt Sarah C. Major married my 4th great-uncle Thomas Acree.

1840 Census King and Queen County Virginia

Major Acree
Free Colored Persons – Males – 10 thru 23: 1
Free Colored Persons – Males – 36 thru 54: 1
Free Colored Persons – Females – 10 thru 23: 2
Free Colored Persons – Females – 36 thru 54: 1
Persons Employed in Agriculture: 2
Total Free Colored Persons: 5

So Major and Nancy  2 daughters and  1 son living with them.

Acree DNA Project

DNA project

Charles Acree established the Acree Surname DNA Project at the Ancestry.com testing firm in August 2006 and have administered it since then.

The project currently has more than forty participants. All of them live in the U.S., with the exception of three U.K. participants. In December 2012 the project was established also at the Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) firm, providing an alternative testing environment.

Through a combination of DNA testing and genealogical research, the project has met its primary objectives – finding that most Acrees living in the U.S. descend from an early-18th-century immigrant with origins in the English-Scottish border area and that a substantial minority descend from an unrelated contemporary British immigrant with the surname Akers.

Any male bearer of the surname Acree or its above-mentioned variants is invited to participate. The project compares the unique Y-Chromosome (Y-STR) segments that fathers pass intact to their sons, which remain stable from generation to generation, with only minor, infrequent mutational changes. Females may participate by convincing an Acree-surnamed male relative (grandfather, father, brother, uncle, cousin or nephew) to provide the requisite DNA as a representative of her line.

Further details are provided on the project’s webpages, listed below.

Links

Acree Surname DNA Project (independent homepage): http://acreetree.net/ydnaacree.html

Origin of the Acree Surname: http://acreetree.net/ydnaorigin.html

Earlier Acrees (including deep ancestry): http://acreetree.net/ydnamap1.html

Documentation of Acree Progenitors (in the U.S.): http://acreetree.net/ydnadocs1.html

Later Acrees (in the U.S.): http://acreetree.net/ydnamap2.html

Acree Surname DNA Project – Press Release (August 31, 2006): http://acreetree.net/ydnapress.html

Acree Project History: http://acreetree.net/ydnahistory.html

Acree Project Lineages (in the U.S.): http://acreetree.net/ydnalines.html

Acree Surname DNA Project at Ancestry.com: http://groups.ancestry.com/group/35373197

Acree Surname DNA Project at FTDNA: http://www.familytreedna.com/public/acree/

A Facebook group has been established as the Acree Family History, Genealogy & DNA Project (with more than 450 current members) at:

http://www.facebook.com/groups/127480870350/

 

Charles Acree professional profile may be seen at:

http://www.linkedin.com/pub/charles-acree/15/337/521

Contact details

For further information, contact:

Mr Charles Acree
E-mail: acree@one-name.org

Long thin blue line

What is Melungeon?

Image

Excerpt from

Melungeon DNA Study Reveals Ancestry, Upsets ‘A Whole Lot Of People’ by TRAVIS LOLLER 05/24/12 Huff Post

NASHVILLE, Tenn. — For years, varied and sometimes wild claims have been made about the origins of a group of dark-skinned Appalachian residents once known derisively as the Melungeons. Some speculated they were descended from Portuguese explorers, or perhaps from Turkish slaves or Gypsies.

Now a new DNA study in the Journal of Genetic Genealogy attempts to separate truth from oral tradition and wishful thinking. The study found the truth to be somewhat less exotic: Genetic evidence shows that the families historically called Melungeons are the offspring of sub-Saharan African men and white women of northern or central European origin.

And that report, which was published in April in the peer-reviewed journal, doesn’t sit comfortably with some people who claim Melungeon ancestry.

“There were a whole lot of people upset by this study,” lead researcher Roberta Estes said. “They just knew they were Portuguese, or Native American.”

Beginning in the early 1800s, or possibly before, the term Melungeon (meh-LUN’-jun) was applied as a slur to a group of about 40 families along the Tennessee-Virginia border. But it has since become a catch-all phrase for a number of groups of mysterious mixed-race ancestry.

In recent decades, interest in the origin of the Melungeons has risen dramatically with advances both in DNA research and in the advent of Internet resources that allow individuals to trace their ancestry without digging through dusty archives.

G. Reginald Daniel, a sociologist at the University of California-Santa Barbara who’s spent more than 30 years examining multiracial people in the U.S. and wasn’t part of this research, said the study is more evidence that race-mixing in the U.S. isn’t a new phenomenon.

“All of us are multiracial,” he said. “It is recapturing a more authentic U.S. history.”

Estes and her fellow researchers theorize that the various Melungeon lines may have sprung from the unions of black and white indentured servants living in Virginia in the mid-1600s, before slavery.

They conclude that as laws were put in place to penalize the mixing of races, the various family groups could only intermarry with each other, even migrating together from Virginia through the Carolinas before settling primarily in the mountains of East Tennessee.

Claims of Portuguese ancestry likely were a ruse they used in order to remain free and retain other privileges that came with being considered white, according to the study’s authors.

The study quotes from an 1874 court case in Tennessee in which a Melungeon woman’s inheritance was challenged. If Martha Simmerman were found to have African blood, she would lose the inheritance.

Her attorney, Lewis Shepherd, argued successfully that the Simmerman’s family was descended from ancient Phoenicians who eventually migrated to Portugal and then to North America.

Writing about his argument in a memoir published years later, Shepherd stated, “Our Southern high-bred people will never tolerate on equal terms any person who is even remotely tainted with negro blood, but they do not make the same objection to other brown or dark-skinned people, like the Spanish, the Cubans, the Italians, etc.”

In another lawsuit in 1855, Jacob Perkins, who is described as “an East Tennessean of a Melungeon family,” sued a man who had accused him of having “negro blood.”

In a note to his attorney, Perkins wrote why he felt the accusation was damaging. Writing in the era of slavery ahead of the Civil War, Perkins noted the racial discrimination of the age: “1st the words imply that we are liable to be indicted (equals) liable to be whipped (equals) liable to be fined … ”

The origin of the word Melungeon is unknown, but there is no doubt it was considered a slur by white residents in Appalachia who suspected the families of being mixed race.

Picture courtesy of weeklyview.net/2013/01/24/the-melungeon-story-part-3