Ridgely Maryland’s 150th Anniversary 2017

 

Ridgely Placemat_150_Layout

The weekend started with the Oliver Downes Jr placing the ancestor’s dedication plaque on the property marker and the family decorating the parade float. Sisters Edwina Austin and Jean Downes preparing the food.

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One of the posters used on the float.

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Oliver Downes Jr (Black Hat) , Randy Boyce (White neck collar) and Oliver Downes Sr (Light blue Hat)

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Acrees, Cephus, Downes, Flamers, Lockermans, Matthews and Pritchetts together for the first time. Their ancestors should be happy in heaven above.

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Four generations of the Downes: Oliver Downes Jr carrying his granddaughter Anaya, Oliver Downes Sr carrying his great granddaughter Kyrie, Pierre Downes carrying his son Jayden Downes and Marcus Downes carrying his daughter Serenity.

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Oliver Downes Sr. United States Navy (Ret.) Korea-Vietnam Wars

                       Oliver Downes Jr. United States Air Force (Ret.) Gulf War

    The Downes float won Best Representative of the 150th Festival Theme

Continue reading “Ridgely Maryland’s 150th Anniversary 2017”

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Corrine Cora Flamer

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When Cora Flamer was born on May 12, 1892, her father, James, was 45, and her mother, Sarah Sparks, was 37. 1900, Cora and her family resided in Queenstown, Queen Anne’s Maryland. Her father James was a farm laborer and her mother Sarah had 15 children and 9 was living at the time. Cora married William Oliver Acree around 1908. 1910 Cora and her family lived in Ridgely Maryland. She had three daughters with William Oliver Acree between 1909 and 1913. Her daughters Mildred I Acree, Mary Grace Acree and Olive Virginia Acree. 1920 Cora and her family lived in Denton Maryland. 1930 Cora and family continue to live in Denton. They own their house, at a value of 500 dollars. Oliver is a barber and Cora is cook for a private home.  February 11 1940 William Oliver Acree had died. Cora was a widow living in Denton by herself. Before 1950 Cora had married Anderson Harry Stanford. November 1951, Cora Stanford said that Norman North, posed as insurance agent, collected $6 from her last July and she never heard from him again. He was arrested. Cora died on July 19, 1972, in Denton, Maryland, at the age of 80, and was buried in Spring Grove Cemetery Denton Caroline County Maryland. Lifelong member of Metropolitan United Methodist Church. Senior Choir and head waitress in the Church dining room for many years.

FREE MIXED-RACE CHILDREN OF WHITE WOMEN LISTED IN INVENTORIES OF MARYLAND

FREE AFRICAN AMERICANS OF MARYLAND AND DELAWARE by Paul Heinegg stated that        ” During the colonial period in Maryland and Delaware: Over 600 free, mixed-race children were born to white women by African-American men. Fewer owned land than did their counterparts in Delaware, Virginia and North Carolina.They had closer relations with the slave population than did their counterparts in Delaware, Virginia and North Carolina. Although some claim Native American ancestry, the evidence indicates that most are direct descendants of mixed-race children of white women.”

 

white indentured_whipping

In 1661 Maryland enacted a law declared that “divers free-born English women, forgetful of their free conditions, and to the disgrace of our nation do intermarry with Negro slaves,” and to deter these “shameful matches” the law provided that women who so marry, and their off-spring, should themselves become slaves.

In 1692 Maryland enacted a law which punished white women who had children by slaves by selling them as servants for seven years and binding their children to serve until the age of twenty-one if they were married to the slave, and till thirty-one if they were not married.

In 1715 and 1728 the Maryland General Assembly made the mixed-race descendants of white women who had children by slaves subject to the same punishments as white women. They were sold as servants for seven year terms, and their children were bound until the age of thirty-one. However, if they had a child by a free person, they were usually charged with fornication and received the same sentence as if both partners had been white: a fine or lashes, and their children were bound until the age of twenty-one (for boys) and sixteen (for girls) [Archives of Maryland, 30:289-90; 36:275-76; Laws of Maryland, 1715, chapter 44, section 25, cited by Wright, The Free Negro in Maryland, 27-8].

Free Mixed Race Children of White Women Listed In Inventories of Maryland

Queen Anne’s County Maryland

Aldridge, Campbell, Cornish, Davis (2 children), Flamer, Gibson, Green, Hall (2 children), Harding, Hawkins, Hopkins (2 children), McDaniel (2 children), Miller, Morgan, Natt (2 children), Nicholson, Pritchett, Reed, Roberts (2 children), Robinson (2 children), Scott, Simiter (2 children), Southwood, Stewart, Suitor, Webber, Whittam. 35 children. Also: unnamed child left at Benjamin Denny’s, Chance, Dazey, Hoy, Lang, Lewellin, Neuth, Sarah, Sheahea. Total: 44 children.
Court records before 1709 and 1720-1727 did not survive.

 

Somerset County Maryland

Armwood, Barton, Bass, Buley, Butler, Cambridge, Conner, Dogan, Donaldson (2 children), Downs, Duffy, Fortune (3 children), Frost, Hodgskin, Jervice (2 children), Johnson, Magee (4 children), Miller, Nutt, Redding, Richards, Roach, Roberts, Shaver, Walker, Winslow. 32 children. Also: Blackbourne, Gloster, Heather, Jones (2 children), Leopard, Logan (2 families), Smith, Tiror. Total: 43 children

DOWNS FAMILY

1. Eliza Downes, born say 1708, was the servant of Sarah Dashiell of Stepney Parish on 15 March 1725/6 when the Somerset County court ordered that she be sold for seven years for having an illegitimate child [Judicial Record 1725-7, 97]. She may have been the ancestor of

i. Paddy, “N.” head of a Muddy Branch, Little Creek, Kent County household of 4 “other free” in 1800 [DE:31].

ii. James, “N.” head of a St. Jones Hundred, Kent County, Delaware household of 8 “other free” in 1800 [DE;46].

iii. James, head of a Little Creek, Kent County household of 7 “other free” in 1800 [DE:40].

iv. Isaac, head of a Dover Hundred, Kent County household of 3 “free colored” in 1820 [DE:35].

v. Charles, (Negro) head of a Caroline County household of 7 “other free” in 1810 [MD:194].

vi. Ben, “Negro” head of a Caroline County household of 7 “other free” in 1810 [MD:195].

vii. Daniel, “Negro” head of a Caroline County household of 5 “other free” in 1810 [MD:195].

 

Prince George’s County

1. William Downs, born say 1765, was a “free negro” head of a Prince George’s County household of 8 “other free” in 1800 [MD:303]. He was probably the father of

i. Robert, born about 1792, obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 3 September 1816: aged about twenty four years .. . brown complexion … free born and … raised in the County [Certificates of Freedom 1810-31, 89].

 

 

FLAMER/ FLAMES FAMILY

Members of the Flamer family were

i. John1, born say 1717, a “Molatto” servant man having “eleven months and 15” to serve and valued at 4 pounds in the inventory of the Queen Anne’s County estate of William Hernsley on 28 October 1737 [Prerogative Inventories 1737-1739, 45-6]. He had an illegitimate child by Elizabeth Grinnage in September 1736 [Judgment Record 1735-9, 344, 382]. He may have been identical to Jonathan Flamar who owed 994 pounds to the Queen Anne’s County estate of Solomon Clayton (who died in 1739) [Prerogative Inventories 98:18-22].

1        ii. Rachel, born say 1720.

2        iii. Judith, born say 1722.

1.    Rachel Flamer, born say 1720, a “poor old Woman,” was supported from public funds by the Queen Anne’s County from 12 December 1775 to 1787. She was called a “poor molatto woman” by the court when it approved her allowance for 1777 [Surles, and they Appeared at Court, 1774-1777, 65, 80; 1779, 1782, 1785, 1786, 1787, 35, 53, 89, 96, 117]. She may have been the ancestor of

i. William, a “Molatto” servant man having “eleven months and 15” to serve and valued at 4 pounds in the inventory of the Queen Anne’s County estate of William Hernsley on 28 October 1737 [Prerogative Inventories 1737-1739, 45-6].

2.    Judith Flamer, born say 1722, was the servant (no race indicated) of Mark Hargadine of Saint Paul’s Parish in March 1745 when the Queen Anne’s County court convicted her of having an illegitimate child named John in 1742 and another child in 1743. In August 1750 she confessed to having other children on 10 June 1747 and 10 December 1748 [Judgment Record 1744-6, 161-2; 1750, 40-2]. She was a spinster living in St. Paul’s Parish when she received 30 lashes and was ordered to pay four-fold the value for stealing a hog worth 40 pounds [Criminal Record 1751-9, n.p.]. She owed the estate of Thomas Kendall 4 pounds, 19 shillings on 10 August 1756 [Prerogative Inventories 73:243]. She was the mother of

i. John2, born on 10 October 1742, a “black” taxable in the Upper Hundred of Kent Island, Queen Anne’s County in 1776 [MSA 148], married to Sherry Grinnage‘s daughter Sarah on 1 November 1790 when Sherry gave her 5 pounds currency by his Caroline County will [WB JR B:168-70].

ii. ?Ann, mother of William and John Flamer (no race indicated) who were with George Sweat on 26 January 1774 when the Queen Anne’s County court ordered him to bring them to court [Surles, and they Appeared at Court, 1774-1777, 41], perhaps identical to the “Molatto girl named Nan” who was valued at 16 pounds in the inventory of the Queen Anne’s County estate of William Hernsley on 28 October 1737 [Prerogative Inventories 1737-1739, 45-6].

iii. ?Solomon, head of a Queen Anne’s County household of 9 “other free” in 1790 [MD:99] and 9 in 1800 [MD:341].

iv. ?William, head of a Talbot County household of 1 “other free” and 3 slaves in 1800 [MD:506].

PRITCHETT FAMILY

1.    Ann Pritchard, born say 1748, was a spinster living in Queen Anne’s County on 10 May 1767 when she had an illegitimate “Molatto” child by a “Negro man.” The court ordered that she be sold for seven years after she completed her service to James Sudler [Judgment Records 1766-7, part 1, CD image 100]. She was probably the mother of the five-year-old “Mulatto” girl serving until the age of twenty-one when she was listed in the Queen Anne’s County inventory of James Sudler on 8 April 1773 [Prerogative Inventories 113:199]. She may have been the ancestor of

i. Silas Pritchett, manumitted by Solomon Barwell in Kent County, Delaware, on 20 October 1786 [Delaware Archives RG 3555.55], head of a Kent County, Maryland household of 5 “other free” in 1800 [MD:63].

Caroline County Maryland, Certificates of Freedom, 1827-1857

Volume 834, Page 352

To Capt.n Joseph Richardson Clerk of Caroline County Court
The undersigned a free negro of Caroline County wishing to visit Philadelphia for the purpose
of seeing his brother and sister   By an Act of Assembly of this State it is necessary my intention
of leaving this State should be known to you   It is my intention to return here again within four
months from this date   Given under my hand this 21.st day of April 1835
Test                                                                                                   his
William Councell                                                              Wilson + Downes
mark

Volume 834, Page 349

 

are permitted to travil out of this State upon the obtention of a certificate of being free born
and whereas also upon the oath of Curtis Andrew of Caroline County that the said negro
man named Joshua Downes for whom this certificate is made was free born, I do therefore grant
his said application and hereby certify that from his own account he was twenty two years
of age the twenty ninth day of August last six feet one and a quarter inches high or
thereabouts of a bright mulattoe complexion was born and raised in Caroline County
and has no notable marks or scars that I can discover
(seal) In Testimony whereof I hereto subscribe my name and affix the public seal of
my office this 21.st day of April Anno Domini 1835
Cost $1.00 Jo Richardson Clk of
Caroline County Court

State of Maryland Caroline County to wit; Whereas application hath been made to me
by a negro man named Wilson Downes for a certificate of his freedom agreeably to the
Acts of Assembly in such case made and provided by which said act free negroes and
mulattoes are permitted to travil out of this State upon the obtention of a certificate
of being free born; and whereas also upon the oath of Curtis Andrew of Caroline
County that the said negro man named Wilson Downes for whom this certificate is
made was free born I do therefore grant his said application and hereby certify
that from his own account he was twenty one years of age the first day of April
Instant five feet eleven and one quarter Inches high or thereabouts of a brown complexion
born and raised in Caroline County and has a scar of a cut on the top of his
right foot extending obliquely across the big toe and the middle finger of his right
hand a little crooked and has no other notable marks or scars that I can discover
(seal)   In Testimony whereof I hereto subscribe my name and affix the public seal
of my Office this 21.st day of April Anno Domini 1835
Cost $1.00                                                                        Jo Richardson Clk of
Caroline County Court

Volume 834, Page 356

M.r Richardson
The undersigned a free negro of Caroline County wishing
to visit the City of Philadelphia for the purpose of seeing his relations &.c
By an act of this state it is necessary my intentions of leaving this state
should be made known unto you               It my intention to return here
again            Given under my hand this 14th day of June 1836
Test      Tho. V. Bishop                                   his
Edwin + Downes
mark

M.r Richardson
Sir, The undersigned a free negro of Caroline County
wishing to visit Philadelphia for the purpose of seeing her relations &c
By an act of this state it is necessary my intentions of leaving this state
should be made known unto unto you   It my intention to return
here again within one month from this date   Given under my
hand this 14th day of June 1836                           her
Test   Tho. V. Bishop                                    Phebe + Downes
mark

 

State of Maryland Caroline County to wit; Whereas application hath been made to me by a negro
man named Jefferson Downes for a certificate of his freedom agreeably to the act of assembly
in such case made and provided by which said act free negroes and mulattoes are permitted
to travel out of this state upon the obtention of a Certificate of being free born; And whereas
also upon the oath of William Price of Queen Anns County that the said negro man named
Jefferson Downes for whom this Certificate is made was free born I do therefore grant his
said application and hereby certify that from his own account he was twenty one years
of age the seventh day of July Instant five feet eight inches high or thereabouts was born
and raised in Caroline County of a black complexion has no flesh marks that I
have observed
(seal) In Testimony whereof I hereto subscribe my name and affix the public
seal of my office this 30th day of July Anno Domini 1831
Cost $1.00 Cts Jo Richardson Clk of
Caroline County Court

 

Volume 834, Page 50  State of Maryland Caroline County to wit Whereas application hath been made to me by a
negro man named William Flamer for a certificate of his freedom agreeably to the act of
assembly in such case made and provided by which said act free negroes and mulattoes
are permitted to travel out of this State upon the obtention of a certificate of being free born
And whereas also upon the oath of Isaac Vinson of Caroline County that the said negro
man named William Flamer for whom this certificate is made was free born. I do therefore
grant his said application and hereby certify that from his own account he is about thirty
three or thirty four years of age five feet seven and three quarter inches high or thereabouts
of a dark mulatto complexion born and raised in Caroline County and has a small
scar of a cut nearly perpendicular in the middle of his forehead and another small scar caused as he says by the bite of a dog on his left arm and no other notable marks orscars that I have observed

(seal) In Testimony whereof I hereto subscribe my name and affix the public seal of
my office this 11th day of July Anno Domini 1831
Cost $1.00 Cts Jo Richardson Clk of
Caroline County Court

Volume 834, Page 165

State of Maryland Caroline County to wit; Whereas application hath been made to me by
a mulatto man named Benjamine Downes for a certificate of his freedom agreeably to the
acts of assembly in such case made and provided by which said acts free negroes and
mulattoes are permitted to travel out of this state upon the obtention of a certificate
of being free born; and whereas also upon the oath of Jonathan Nicols of Caroline
County aforesaid that the said mulatto man named Benjamine Downes for whom
this certificate is made was free born; I do therefore grant his said application
and hereby certify that from his own account he was twenty seven years of age
on the twenty fifth day of December last past six feet and three quarter of an
inch high or thereabouts was born and raised in Caroline County Complexion
Mulatto and has a scar of a cut on the back of his right hand and another scar
of a cut just above the instep on his left leg and his face scared by the small
pox and has no other notable marks or scars that I have observed, In Testimony
(Seal)                   whereof I hereto subscribe my name and affix the public seal
of my office this 16th day of December Eighteen hundred and
forty one                                           Jo Richardson, Clk
Cost $1:00                                          Caroline County Court

285

State of Maryland Caroline County to wit Whereas
application hath been made to me by a negro man named
Isaac Downes for a certificate of his freedom agreeably to Law
And whereas upon the oath of John S. Connelly has been
proven that said negro man was born free I do therefore
grant this Certificate. He is about 27 years of age 5 feet
11¾ inches high or thereabouts of a light Chesnutt Complexion
and has a small scar on the upper lip just under the nose and
no other notable marks or scars that I have observed
In Testimony whereof I hereunto subscribe
my name and affix the seal of the Circuit
(Seal) Court for Caroline County this 28th day
of February Anno Domini 1853
Thomas F Garey Clk

State of Maryland Caroline County to wit; Whereas application hath
been made to me by coloured woman named Rachel Downes for a certificate
of her freedom agreeably to the act of assembly in such case made and
provided by which said act free negroes and mulattoes are permitted to
travel out of this state upon the obtention of a certificate of being free
born and whereas also upon the oath of Lidia Stanton of Caroline County
that the said coloured woman named Rachel Downes for whom this
certificate is made was free born I do therefore grant her said application
and hereby certify that from her own account she was nineteen
years of age in February last five feet three and a quarter inches high
or thereabouts of a dark mulatto complexion was born and raised in
Caroline County has a scar of a cut crossing obliquely the back of her

left little finger between the middle and hand joints and no another fine
scar as of a scratch on the back of her left hand extending nearly from
the hand joint in a straight direction towards the wrist and no other notable
marks or scars that I have observed
(seal) In Testimony whereof I hereto subscribe my name and affix the public
seal of my office this 20th day of August 1829
Cost $1.00 Jo Richardson Clk of
Caroline County Court

tate of Maryland Caroline County to wit; Whereas heretofore to wit; on the twelfth
day of June in the year of our Lord Seventeen hundred and ninety a certain Solomon
Kenton of Caroline County by Deed of manumission duly executed acknowledged and
recorded among the land records of Caroline County did manumit and set free a
certain negro man named Charles now calling himself Charles Downes to be free
from and after the first day of January Eighteen hundred and five and the said negro
man named Charles now calling himself Charles Downes having made application
to me for a certificate of his freedom agreeably to the act of assembly in such case

made and provided and whereas also upon the oath of Joshua Cranor of Caroline County
that the said negro man named Charles (now calling himself Charles Downes for whom this
certificate is made is the same person mentioned in the said manumission I do therefore
grant his said application and hereby certify ^that^ from his age as expressed in the said manumission
he is fifty years of age or thereabouts five feet nine and three quarter inches
high or thereabouts of a dark brown complexion born and raised in Caroline County
has a small scar of a sore on his breast and has no other notable marks or scars
that I have observed
(seal) In Testimony whereof I hereto subscribe my name and affix the public seal of
my office this 3.d day of September Anno Domini 1834
Cost $1.00 Jo Richardson Clk of
Caroline County Court

ETHNIC INTERMARRIAGE IN COLONIAL AMERICA

Excerpts from Malungu: The African Origin of the American Melungeons from Tim Hashaw

Mixed descendants of the first African-Americans entered all walks of life. Many are world famous. Among the offspring of colonial-era Angolan Americans; the mother of Abraham Lincoln Nancy Hanks, Tom Hanks, Ava Gardner, Elvis Presley, Heather Locklear, Rich Mullins, and comedian Steve Martin from Waco, Texas.

Many of the patriarchal surnames of these 17th century Angolan-Americans survive today because, more often than not, Angolan men married white women of English, Irish and Scottish ancestry. White men also married Angolan women but not as frequently. The un-even ratio of black men to black women caused the imbalance. Had there been more black women in America in the 17th century, there would have been less black and white intermarriage.

In Virginia and other colonies in the 17th and 18th centuries, and even into the 19th century, white women showed no repugnance to Africans of equal status. Lerone Bennett Jr. in “Before the Mayflower” quotes Edward Long, a contemporary witness who observed that, “…the lower class of women in England, are remarkably fond of the blacks, for reasons to brutal to mention.”

Genealogist Paul Heinegg found many early mixed marriages in colonial Virginia, between free African-Americans and white Europeans. Cases he gives:

“Francis Payne was married to a white woman named Amy by September 1656 when he gave her a mare by deed of jointure. [DW 1655-68, fol.19].

“Francis Skiper was married to Ann, an African American woman, before February 1667 when they sold land in Norfolk County.” [W&D E:1666-75; Orders 1666-75,73]

“Elizabeth Kay, a “Mulatto” woman whose father had been free, successfully sued for her freedom in Northumberland County in 1690, and married her white attorney, William Greensted”. [WMQ, 3rd ser, XXX, 467-74]

Sometimes white planters promoted mixed marriages of African men and white women for economic reasons; hoping to reap the servitude of the offspring as legal chattel.

Excerpts from Malungu: The African Origin of the American Melungeons

Excerpts from MALUNGU: The African Origin of the American Melungeons by Tim Hashaw

1. The very first black ancestors of Melungeons appeared in tidewater Virginia, not in the 18th century, but in 1619.

2. Not one single Melungeon family can be traced to a white plantation owner and his black female slave. The vast majority of the African ancestors of Melungia were freeborn for more than three hundred years.

This bears repeating.

Melungeons are not the offspring of white southern plantation owners and helpless black slaves. Most of the African ancestors of Melungeons were never chattel slaves. They were frequently black men freed from indentured servitude just like many white servants of the 17th century. Less often, African ancestors of the Melungeons either purchased their freedom from slavery or were freed upon the deaths of their masters.

The black patriarchs of the Melungeons were commonly free African-American men who married white women in Virginia and other southern colonies, often before 1700. Paul Heinegg in his revealing book, “Free African Americans in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware” provides strong evidence that less than one percent of all free Africans were born of white slave-owners.

Melungeons are an ethnically diverse group originating in early 1600s Virginia, Carolina, Maryland, and Delaware. Their descendants’ later spread into Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Louisiana, and Texas. The earliest Melungeon ancestors were white northern Europeans, Bantu Africans and North American Indians.

Among the northern Europeans, the Melungeon ancestors include English, Scot, Irish, Welsh, Dutch, and German parents. North American Indian ancestors include people from the tribes of Powhatan, Mattaponi, Monie, Nansemond, Rappahanock, Pamunkey, Chickahominie, Cherokee (Buffalo Ridge) and Choctaw.

From the 1620s, in southern British colonies like Virginia, white northern Europeans intermarried with Indians. They also intermarried with Africans who began entering the American colonies as early as 1619. Melungeons originate from these red, white and black peoples in this period of American history. They began forming identifiable separate mixed communities when the first anti-African laws started restricting some of their freedoms by 1660.

Until recently, not much has been known about the Melungeons’ African ancestors. New evidence now indicates that the black ancestors of Melungeons were peoples of Kimbundu and Kikongo-speaking Angola and historic Kongo along Africa’s lower west coast. The nation of Mbundu in Angola yielded more black ancestors for Melungeons than any other African people.

ANGOLAN ANCESTORS OF MELUNGEONS IN EARLY 17TH CENTURY VIRGINIA, MARYLAND, DELAWARE AND CAROLINA

1620’s: Carter, Cornish, Dale/Dial, Driggers, Gowen/Goins, Johnson, Longo, Mongom/Mongon, Payne

1630’s: Cane, Davis, George, Hartman, Sisco, Tann, Wansey

1640’s: Archer, Kersey, Mozingo, Webb

1650’s: Cuttillo, Jacobs, James

1660’s: Beckett, Bell, Charity, Cumbo, Evans, Francis, Guy, Harris, Jones,Landum/Landrum, Lovina/Leviner, Moore, Nickens, Powell, Shorter, Tate, Warrick/Warwick

In the above lists of surnames there is found other documentation that these Africans arriving from 1620-1660 were mostly Angolan. Anthony Johnson’s grandson named his Maryland plantation “Angola”. The sister of Sebastian Cane was also named “Angola”. Additionally, a number of early place names in Virginia and other original tidewater colonies bear testimony of the 17th century presence of the Melungeons’ African ancestors. A land deed shows reference to “Angola Neck” near Rehoboth Beach in Delaware as early as 1680. In Cumberland County, Virginia, an “Angola Creek” was on the map before the 18th century. In North Carolina another Angola Creek is the site of a modern nature preserve. Also several Africans in the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (New York) in the early 17th century were surnamed either “Angola”, or “Congo”.

Not all of the paternal surnames passed down to Melungeons were originally borne by Africans in America. Some families such as Banks, Bass, Berry, Chavis, Sweat, Davis, Hanser, Lang, Lawrence, Fisher, Hammond, Lucas, Matthews began with white male or female ancestors from whom certain branches initially intermarried with Indians. However all of these white and Indian families intermarried with Angolans in America, often before 1700.

The original name of malungu used by early Kimbundu and Kikongo-speaking Africans in Virginia, eventually extended to include all mixed red, white and black family members associated with the Angolans in the original southern colonies. The idea of malungu as “shipmates from a common homeland” gradually came to mean”countrymen”, “close friends” and “relatives” in the mobile freeborn Melungeon community. This name would not have included chattel slaves who were separated from the free community by plantation bondage.

LATER 17TH CENTURY FAMILIES ASSOCIATED WITH FREE AFRICAN AMERICANS

1670’s: Anderson, Atkins, Barton, Boarman, Bowser, Brown, Bunch, Buss, Butcher, Butler, Carney, Case, Church, Combess, Combs, Consellor, Day, Farrell/Ferrell, Fountain, Game, Gibson/Gipson, Gregory, Grimes, Grinnage, Hobson, Howell, Jeffries, Lee, Manuel, Morris, Mullakin, Nelson, Osborne, Pendarvis, Quander, Redman, Reed, Rhoads, Rustin, Skipper, Sparrow, Stephens, Stinger, Swann, Waters, Wilson.

1680’s: Artis, Booth, Britt, Brooks, Bryant, Burkett, Cambridge, Cassidy, Collins, Copes, Cox, Dogan, Donathan, Forten/Fortune, Gwinn, Hilliard, Hubbard, Impey, Ivey, Jackson, MacDonald, MacGee, Mahoney, Mallory, Okey, Oliver, Penny, Plowman, Press/Priss, Price, Proctor, Robins, Salmons/Sammons, Shoecraft, Walden, Walker, Wiggins, Wilkens, Williams

1690’s: Annis, Banneker, Bazmore, Beddo, Bond, Cannedy/Kennedy, Chambers, Conner, Cuffee, Dawson, Durham, Ford, Gannon, Gates, Graham, Hall, Harrison, Hawkins, Heath, Holt, Horner, Knight, Lansford, Lewis, Malavery, Nichols, Norman, Oxendine, Plummer, Pratt, Prichard, Rawlinson, Ray, Ridley, Roberts, Russell, Sample, Savoy, Shaw, Smith, Stewart, Taylor, Thompson, Toney, Turner, Weaver, Welsh, Whistler, Willis, Young

These African-American families appeared in the southern tidewater colonies when evidence indicates that most all of the blacks coming to America, were Angolan by birth.

THE EARLIEST MELUNGEON CLANS IN SOUTHERN TIDEWATER COLONIES

The following are some of the first black, white, Indian and mixed families who began intermarrying in the 1600s in Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and the Carolinas to produce the people who became known as “Melungeons”.

The African who became known as John Gowen of Virginia, was born about 1615. Before 1775, his descendants had married into the black, white, Indian and mixed families of Ailstock, Bass, Chavis, Corn, Cumbo, Dungill, Findley, Hill, Jones,Locklear, Lucas, Matthews, Mason, Miner, Mills, Patterson, Pompey, Stewart,Simmons, Singleton, Tyre, Webb, and Wilson; many of whom can also be traced to the 17th century.

Thomas Chivers/Chavis was born in 1630. Before 1775, his descendants had married into the mixed families of Bass, Locklear, Singleton, Stewart, Cumbo, Matthews, and Wilson as had descendants of John Gowen. In addition the Chivers/Chavis group intermarried with Bird, Blair, Blythe, Brandon, Bunch, Cannady, Carter, Cypress, Drew, Earl, Evans, Francis, Gibson, Gillet,Haithcock, Harris, Hawley, Hull, Kersey, Lowry, Manly, Manning, Mitchell, McLin, Scott, Silvey, Smith, Snelling, Silver, Sweat, Thaxton, Tyner, Thomerson, Taborn, Valentine, Watts, and Walden; many of whom were 17th century Africans in the British-American colonies.

The family of Eleanor Evans, born in 1660, shares with the Gowen and Chavis families the following names: Bird, Brandon, Chavis, Dunghill, Harris, Kersey, McLinn, Mitchell, Snelling, Scott, Stewart, Sweat, Taborn, and Walden. In addition, the Evans were early related to the families of Anderson, Boyd, Bee, Blundon, Doyal, Green, Hudnall, Hunt, Jeffries, Jones, Lantern, Ledbetter, Penn,Pettiford, Redcross, Richardson, Rowe, Sorrell, Spriddle,Tate, Thomas, Toney, and Young.

The Gibson/Gipson family which descended from Elizabeth Chavis, born in 1672, also shares with the 17th century Gowen, Chavis, and Evans families, the surnames of Bass, Bunch, Chavis, Cumbo, and Sweat. They add Driggers,Deas, Collins, and Ridley.

The family of the Angolan named Emmanuel Driggers, [Rodriggus] born in 1620, also has several families in common with the Gowen, Chavis, Evans and Gibson clans: namely Carter, Collins, Sweat, Gibson, and Mitchell. In addition, the Driggers intermarried with Beckett, Beavens, Bingham, Bruinton, Copes, Fernando, Francisco, George,Gussal, Harman, Hodgeskin, Jeffrey, Johnson, King, Kelly Lindsey, Landrum, Liverpool, Moore, Payne, Reed, and Sample.

From Margarett Cornish, born about 1610, comes the Cornish family with ties to Gowen and Sweat in addition to Shaw and Thorn.

With the Cumbo family dating back to 1644, we have links to Gibson, Gowen, Jeffries, Matthews, Newsom, Wilson and Young in addition to Hammond, Maskill, Potter, and Skipper.

The Bass family originates in 1638 America and shares several connections from an early period with Gowen, Chavis, Evans, Cornish, Driggers, Cumbos and Gibsons which are: Anderson, Byrd, Bunch, Cannady, Chavis, Day, Mitchell, Gowen, Pettiford, Richardson, Snelling, Valentine and Walden. In addition, they are related to the mixed families of Farmer, Hall, Lovina, Nickens, Perkins, Pone, Price, Roe, and Roberts.

If given the space, we could present complex scores of intermarriages of Melungeon and other mixed surnames beginning in the 1600s of colonial America. These common kinships of cousins show the Melungeon society was becoming cohesive and distinctively apart in colonial America at least 100 years before the American Revolution. The Melungeon community began before 1700.

For example: The Banks family originates in 1665 colonial America with related families of Adam, Brown, Day, Howell, Isaacs, Johnson, Lynch, Martin, Walden, Wilson, and Valentine along with several Melungeon surnames.

The Archer family begins in 1647 America with related families; Archie, Bass, Bunch, Heathcock, Manly, Murray, Milton, Newsom, Roberts, and Weaver.

The Bunch clan traces back to 1675 colonial America with kinship to: Bass, Chavis,Chavers, Collins, Gibson, Griffin, Hammons, Pritchard, and Summerlin.

The Beckett family of 1655 ties to Bibbins, Beavens, Collins, Driggers, Drighouse, Liverpool, Mongon, Morris, Moses, Nutt, Stevens, and Thompson.

The family of Carter begins in 1620 America with the related families of: Best, Blizzard, Braveboy, Bush, Cane, Copes, Dove, Driggus, Fernando, Fenner, Godett, George, Harmon, Howard, Jacobs, Jones, Kelly, Lowery, Moore, Norwood, Nicken, Perkins, Rawlinson, and Spellman.

Mixed red, white, and black Melungeons can be found in Virginia and Maryland within one and two generations of the first Mbundu-Angolan appearance in Jamestown in 1619. The general Melungeon community is more than 350 years old in North America.

All of these families descended from, or intermarried with, 17th century Angolans of Virginia. They began building the Melungeon community more than a century before it appeared in Tennessee.

ANGOLANS AND 17TH CENTURY CUSTOM IN VIRGINIA

The two most important social distinctions in early colonial Virginia were Class and Religion. In 1616, John Rolfe brought his newly baptized Algonquian Indian bride Pocahontas to England. Receiving them at court, King James and his courtiers were appalled that Rolfe, an English commoner, had presumed to marry a princess. In the eyes of Europe, Pocahontas was Rolfe’s social superior and the marriage of a princess to an untitled husband was offensive and inappropriate. That Pocahontas was red and Rolfe was white was irrelevant. There was nothing in English literature or thought in the 17th century, which entertained the notion of “white” as a class distinction.

The equality of free whites and free blacks in Virginia in the 1600s can be documented in several areas of colonial life important in the development of the Melungeon community.

1. Free African-Americans could own property.

2. Free African-Americans could own servants of any skin color.

3. There were no laws for most of the 17h century against inter-marriage based on skin color.

4. Free baptized African-Americans were allowed to give testimony in court and hold office.

The most famous Melungeon ancestor in the colonies was the Angolan who took the name Anthony Johnson. His Portuguese name, “Antonio” was shared by a number of other early Virginia African-Americans and because of this, there is confusion over which “Antonio” was actually Anthony Johnson. J. Douglas Deal makes a pretty good argument in “Race and Class in Colonial Virginia” that Anthony Johnson was the Antonio or Anthony of Warrosquoke who married a black woman named Mary. This Antonio was a passenger on the “James” from England or Bermuda to Virginia in 1622. Another Antonio who lived in Kecoughtan, married a black woman named “Isabelle” and had the first recorded African-American infant, William.

15 Minutes of Fame of Wilson Downes, Flamer, Cephas

15 MINUTES OF FAME

Church                Afro  American Newspaper Jan 8,1927

Community section article of Ridgely, Maryland

Replanted Zion M.E church, Rev. J. H. Stevenson, pastor. On Saturday morning union services were held at Trinity A.M.E. church, Rev. T.F. Chaney, pastor. The history of the birth of the Christ Child was given in a gospel message by the pastor, Replanted Zion M. E. church Rev. Stevenson.                                             Saturday evening between six or seven, the members from both churches met in town and sang Christmas songs around the community Christmas tree in commemoration of the birth of Christ. Many whites were present to hear the singing, in spite of  the increment weather.

Replanted Zion M. E. church was my father’s and his parents home church in Ridgely.

Wilson

 

My paternal ancestors were listed in the same article about town visitors or trips.

Elwood Mason of Wilmington, Del. visited his mother Mrs. Ella Cephas.

Misses Mary Blake and Reba Dunn of Philadelphia, visited their aunt and mother, Mrs. Hattie Stanford.

Mrs Maggie Seth, of Philadelphia visited her mother and sister, Mrs. Sarah Flamer and Mrs. Amanda Henry.

Wilson Downes and Mrs. Hattie  Stanford are home after several weeks in Philadelphia and Germantown.