FREE MIXED-RACE CHILDREN OF WHITE WOMEN LISTED IN INVENTORIES OF MARYLAND

FREE AFRICAN AMERICANS OF MARYLAND AND DELAWARE by Paul Heinegg stated that        ” During the colonial period in Maryland and Delaware: Over 600 free, mixed-race children were born to white women by African-American men. Fewer owned land than did their counterparts in Delaware, Virginia and North Carolina.They had closer relations with the slave population than did their counterparts in Delaware, Virginia and North Carolina. Although some claim Native American ancestry, the evidence indicates that most are direct descendants of mixed-race children of white women.”

 

white indentured_whipping

In 1661 Maryland enacted a law declared that “divers free-born English women, forgetful of their free conditions, and to the disgrace of our nation do intermarry with Negro slaves,” and to deter these “shameful matches” the law provided that women who so marry, and their off-spring, should themselves become slaves.

In 1692 Maryland enacted a law which punished white women who had children by slaves by selling them as servants for seven years and binding their children to serve until the age of twenty-one if they were married to the slave, and till thirty-one if they were not married.

In 1715 and 1728 the Maryland General Assembly made the mixed-race descendants of white women who had children by slaves subject to the same punishments as white women. They were sold as servants for seven year terms, and their children were bound until the age of thirty-one. However, if they had a child by a free person, they were usually charged with fornication and received the same sentence as if both partners had been white: a fine or lashes, and their children were bound until the age of twenty-one (for boys) and sixteen (for girls) [Archives of Maryland, 30:289-90; 36:275-76; Laws of Maryland, 1715, chapter 44, section 25, cited by Wright, The Free Negro in Maryland, 27-8].

Free Mixed Race Children of White Women Listed In Inventories of Maryland

Queen Anne’s County Maryland

Aldridge, Campbell, Cornish, Davis (2 children), Flamer, Gibson, Green, Hall (2 children), Harding, Hawkins, Hopkins (2 children), McDaniel (2 children), Miller, Morgan, Natt (2 children), Nicholson, Pritchett, Reed, Roberts (2 children), Robinson (2 children), Scott, Simiter (2 children), Southwood, Stewart, Suitor, Webber, Whittam. 35 children. Also: unnamed child left at Benjamin Denny’s, Chance, Dazey, Hoy, Lang, Lewellin, Neuth, Sarah, Sheahea. Total: 44 children.
Court records before 1709 and 1720-1727 did not survive.

 

Somerset County Maryland

Armwood, Barton, Bass, Buley, Butler, Cambridge, Conner, Dogan, Donaldson (2 children), Downs, Duffy, Fortune (3 children), Frost, Hodgskin, Jervice (2 children), Johnson, Magee (4 children), Miller, Nutt, Redding, Richards, Roach, Roberts, Shaver, Walker, Winslow. 32 children. Also: Blackbourne, Gloster, Heather, Jones (2 children), Leopard, Logan (2 families), Smith, Tiror. Total: 43 children

DOWNS FAMILY

1. Eliza Downes, born say 1708, was the servant of Sarah Dashiell of Stepney Parish on 15 March 1725/6 when the Somerset County court ordered that she be sold for seven years for having an illegitimate child [Judicial Record 1725-7, 97]. She may have been the ancestor of

i. Paddy, “N.” head of a Muddy Branch, Little Creek, Kent County household of 4 “other free” in 1800 [DE:31].

ii. James, “N.” head of a St. Jones Hundred, Kent County, Delaware household of 8 “other free” in 1800 [DE;46].

iii. James, head of a Little Creek, Kent County household of 7 “other free” in 1800 [DE:40].

iv. Isaac, head of a Dover Hundred, Kent County household of 3 “free colored” in 1820 [DE:35].

v. Charles, (Negro) head of a Caroline County household of 7 “other free” in 1810 [MD:194].

vi. Ben, “Negro” head of a Caroline County household of 7 “other free” in 1810 [MD:195].

vii. Daniel, “Negro” head of a Caroline County household of 5 “other free” in 1810 [MD:195].

 

Prince George’s County

1. William Downs, born say 1765, was a “free negro” head of a Prince George’s County household of 8 “other free” in 1800 [MD:303]. He was probably the father of

i. Robert, born about 1792, obtained a certificate of freedom in Anne Arundel County on 3 September 1816: aged about twenty four years .. . brown complexion … free born and … raised in the County [Certificates of Freedom 1810-31, 89].

 

 

FLAMER/ FLAMES FAMILY

Members of the Flamer family were

i. John1, born say 1717, a “Molatto” servant man having “eleven months and 15” to serve and valued at 4 pounds in the inventory of the Queen Anne’s County estate of William Hernsley on 28 October 1737 [Prerogative Inventories 1737-1739, 45-6]. He had an illegitimate child by Elizabeth Grinnage in September 1736 [Judgment Record 1735-9, 344, 382]. He may have been identical to Jonathan Flamar who owed 994 pounds to the Queen Anne’s County estate of Solomon Clayton (who died in 1739) [Prerogative Inventories 98:18-22].

1        ii. Rachel, born say 1720.

2        iii. Judith, born say 1722.

1.    Rachel Flamer, born say 1720, a “poor old Woman,” was supported from public funds by the Queen Anne’s County from 12 December 1775 to 1787. She was called a “poor molatto woman” by the court when it approved her allowance for 1777 [Surles, and they Appeared at Court, 1774-1777, 65, 80; 1779, 1782, 1785, 1786, 1787, 35, 53, 89, 96, 117]. She may have been the ancestor of

i. William, a “Molatto” servant man having “eleven months and 15” to serve and valued at 4 pounds in the inventory of the Queen Anne’s County estate of William Hernsley on 28 October 1737 [Prerogative Inventories 1737-1739, 45-6].

2.    Judith Flamer, born say 1722, was the servant (no race indicated) of Mark Hargadine of Saint Paul’s Parish in March 1745 when the Queen Anne’s County court convicted her of having an illegitimate child named John in 1742 and another child in 1743. In August 1750 she confessed to having other children on 10 June 1747 and 10 December 1748 [Judgment Record 1744-6, 161-2; 1750, 40-2]. She was a spinster living in St. Paul’s Parish when she received 30 lashes and was ordered to pay four-fold the value for stealing a hog worth 40 pounds [Criminal Record 1751-9, n.p.]. She owed the estate of Thomas Kendall 4 pounds, 19 shillings on 10 August 1756 [Prerogative Inventories 73:243]. She was the mother of

i. John2, born on 10 October 1742, a “black” taxable in the Upper Hundred of Kent Island, Queen Anne’s County in 1776 [MSA 148], married to Sherry Grinnage‘s daughter Sarah on 1 November 1790 when Sherry gave her 5 pounds currency by his Caroline County will [WB JR B:168-70].

ii. ?Ann, mother of William and John Flamer (no race indicated) who were with George Sweat on 26 January 1774 when the Queen Anne’s County court ordered him to bring them to court [Surles, and they Appeared at Court, 1774-1777, 41], perhaps identical to the “Molatto girl named Nan” who was valued at 16 pounds in the inventory of the Queen Anne’s County estate of William Hernsley on 28 October 1737 [Prerogative Inventories 1737-1739, 45-6].

iii. ?Solomon, head of a Queen Anne’s County household of 9 “other free” in 1790 [MD:99] and 9 in 1800 [MD:341].

iv. ?William, head of a Talbot County household of 1 “other free” and 3 slaves in 1800 [MD:506].

PRITCHETT FAMILY

1.    Ann Pritchard, born say 1748, was a spinster living in Queen Anne’s County on 10 May 1767 when she had an illegitimate “Molatto” child by a “Negro man.” The court ordered that she be sold for seven years after she completed her service to James Sudler [Judgment Records 1766-7, part 1, CD image 100]. She was probably the mother of the five-year-old “Mulatto” girl serving until the age of twenty-one when she was listed in the Queen Anne’s County inventory of James Sudler on 8 April 1773 [Prerogative Inventories 113:199]. She may have been the ancestor of

i. Silas Pritchett, manumitted by Solomon Barwell in Kent County, Delaware, on 20 October 1786 [Delaware Archives RG 3555.55], head of a Kent County, Maryland household of 5 “other free” in 1800 [MD:63].

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Achilles Acree

Subject: Achilles Acree

Born:  In Virginia, United States

Question: Are there two Achilles Acree in Caroline County?

1809 Caroline County Virginia                                                                                                      Name: Archilles Acre  Gender: Male

Spouse Name: Susanna Lavorn

Spouse Gender : Female

Marriage Date: 12 Dec 1809 County: Caroline State: Virginia

                                                                         

1810 King and Queen County Virginia

1810UnitedStatesFederalCensusForAchillesAcre

 

Name: Achilles Acree
Home in 1810 (City, County, State): King and Queen, Virginia
Free White Persons – Males – 26 thru 44 : 1
Free White Persons – Females – 16 thru 25: 1
Number of Household Members Over 25: 1
Number of Household Members: 2

 

 

 

1814 Achillis Acree: of Caroline County served under Capt. Wm. H. Hutcherson of King and Queen County from about August 6 to September 18, 1814, and for which service he received 40 acres. On April 25, 1854, he made oath that he was 75 years old.

1817, List of Ambrose Jones, Caroline County                                                                                             Acre, Killes 1 tithe 1 horse free Mulatto

1818, Caroline County list of Ambrose Jones                                                                                                Acre, Killes 1 tithe 1 horse

1819, List of Ambrose Jones                                                                                                                             Acre, Achilles 1 tithe 1 horse

1820 List of Ambrose Jones                                                                                                                             Acree, Achilles 1 tithe 1 horse         Acree, Majer 1 tithe

1820 census Caroline County Virginia

1820UnitedStatesFederalCensusForMajorAcree (1)

 

Name: Achilles Acree
Home in 1820 (City, County, State): Caroline, Virginia
Enumeration Date: August 7, 1820
Free White Persons – Males – Under 10: 3
Free White Persons – Males – 26 thru 44: 1
Free White Persons – Females – Under 10: 1
Free White Persons – Females – 16 thru 25: 1
Free White Persons – Under 16: 4
Free White Persons – Over 25: 1
Total Free White Persons: 6
Total All Persons – White, Slaves, Colored, Other: 6

This Achilles Acree who is listed white, lives near Major Acree. Which also the mulatto Achilles Acree live near Major Acree. There is never two Achilles listed at the same time. It appears the Federal census taker noted that Achilles Acree was a white man. The local town clerk noted each year on the register that Achilles Acree as a free Mulatto.

1830 Federal Census Caroline County Virginia 

Name: Achilles Acre
Home in 1830 (City, County, State): Caroline, Virginia
Free White Persons – Males – 10 thru 14: 1
Free White Persons – Males – 15 thru 19: 2
Free White Persons – Males – 40 thru 49: 1
Free White Persons – Females – 10 thru 14: 1
Free White Persons – Females – 40 thru 49: 1
Slaves – Males – Under 10: 1
Slaves – Females – Under 10: 1
Slaves – Females – 24 thru 35: 1
Free White Persons – Under 20: 4
Free White Persons – 20 thru 49: 2
Total Free White Persons: 6
Total Slaves: 3
Total – All Persons (Free White, Slaves, Free Colored): 9

Notation:    Index of Marriage Register(1787-1853) Reel#33VSA                                                                        Earliest is 1809, Archilles Acre; may be free black family. Posted by John Stevens                      January 01, 2002 Re: Acree, John 1760-1780 Caroline Co. VA

So another reseacher in 2002 also made the assumption that Achilles Acree had black ancestry.

Achilles Acree remained in Caroline County Virginia, his last two decades he lived as a pauper.